Cover Image


Philip Ogbeide Orhue, Faith Oseahumen Okoebor, McSionel Abdul-Razaq Momoh


This study investigates the effect of plasmid curing on antibiotics susceptibility pattern of Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates. The study involved confirmed clinical samples of P. aeruginosa obtained from patients attending the general out-patient department of Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital, Irrua-Nigeria. Samples with established Pseudomonas aeruginosa were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing before plasmid curing (group 1) and after plasmid curing (group 2) using Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate intercalating dye following previously determined standard procedures. Antibiotic resistivity and susceptibility outcomes were then determined by measuring the zone of inhibition and the pre and post cured experiments were compared. The results showed that Pseudomonas aeruginosa is 100% resistance to tetracycline, cefotaxime, ethromycin, methronidazole, nitrofuratoin, ampicillin-clauvulanate, ampicillin, amoxicillin and ampiclox. Post-plasmid curing resulted to increased susceptibility rangeing from 13.3% to 92.0% as against 5.3% to 80% in the pre-plasmid cured P. aeruginosa. Based on these findings, clinical isolates P. aeruginosa in the study area has a very high resistance rate that may be due to plasmid development or mutation of the organism and thus, the call for clinicians to carryout antibiotics susceptibility testing prior to antibiotic prescription.


Pseudomonas aeruginosa, antibiotics susceptibility, plasmid curing, clinical isolates


Delden CV, Iglewiski BH. Cell to cell signaling and Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections. Emerging infectious Diseases. 1998, 4 (4):551-560

Song W, Woo HJ, Kim JS, Lee KM. In vitro activity of lactams in combination with other antimicrobial agents against resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents. 2003, 21:8-12

Stewart FM, Levin BR. The population biology of bacteria plasmids: Apriori conditions for the existence of mobilizable nonconjugative factor. Advance Journal of Genetics. 1977, 2:94

Masterton RG. Surveillance studies: how can they help the management of infections? Journal of Antimicrobiology Chemotherapy. 2002,46(Suppl T2):53-58

File FM. Overview of resistance in the 1990s. Chest. 1999, 115(3):35-85

Sexton DJ. The impact of antimicrobial resistance on empiric selection and antimicrobial use in clinical practice. Journal of Medicine Liban. 2000, 48 (4) :215-220

Livermore DM. Clinical significance of β-lactamase induction and stable derepression in gram-negative rods. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 1987, 6:439-45

Livermore DM. Multiple mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in P. aeruginosa: Our worst nightmare? CID Antimicrobial resistance. 2004, 34:634-664

Nordmann P, Guibert M. Extended-spectrum β-lactamases in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 1998, 42, 128-131

Nikaido H. Outer membrane barrier as a mechanism of antimicrobial resistance. Antimicrobial Agents Chemotherapy. 1989, 33:1831-1836

Govan JR, Collee JG, Fraser AG, Marmion BP, Simmons A. Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Burkholderia. In: Mackie and McCartney’s Practical Medical Microbiology, 14th edn. Churchill Livingstone. 1996. pp. 414-416

Lederberg J. Cell genetics and Hereditary Biosis. Physiology Review. 1952, 32 (4):403-430

Freifelder D. Molecular biology: A comprehensive introduction to prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Science Books international. Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. 1983

Pechere JC, Kohler T. Patterns and modes of β-lactam resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Clinical Microbiology Infection. 1999, 515-518

Li. X, Nikadio H. Efflux-Mediated Drug Resistance in Bacteria: an Update. Drug. 2009, 69 (12): 1555-623.

Shahid M, Malik A, Sheeba O. Multidrug –resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains harbouring R-Plasmids and Amp.C beta-lactamases isolated from hospitalized burn patients in a tertiary care hospital of North India. Federation of Europeann Microbiological Societies. Microbiology Letters. 2003, 228:181-186

Ahmad I, Yadava JNS, Ahmad S. Elimination of R factors among Escherichia coli strains with special reference to norfloxacin. Indian Medical Journal. 1993, 7:115-122

Beg AZ, Ahmad I. Effect of Plumbago zeylanica extract and certain curing agents on multidrug resistant bacteria of clinical origin. World Journal of. Microbiology. 2000, 16:841-844

Rotimi AO, Esho EO, Emina PA. Outbreak of Multiple resistant in Pseudomonas aeruginosa carrying transferable resistance factor (R plasmids) in a urology clinic. Niger. Quarter Journal of Hospital Medicine. 1984, 2:3-9

Lexmi VV, Padma S, Polasa H. Elimination of multidrug resistance plasmid in bacteria by plumbagin derived from plant. Curr. Microbio. 1987, 16:159, 24

Winker U, Ruger W, Wackernagew, L. Bacterial phage and molecular genetics. Berlin; Springer. 1979, Pp. 127-128

Daini OA, Adesemowo A. Antimicrobial susceptibility Patterns and R-Plasmids of Clinical strains of Escherichia coli. Journal of Basic Applied Sciences. 2008, 2:397-400

National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS). Performance standards for antimicrobial disk susceptibility testing,10 Information Supplement approved Standard. 2000, Pp.100-510

Cruikshank R, Duguid JP, Marmion BP, Swan RHA. Medical Microbiology. Churchill Livingstone. 1975, Pp 586

Emori TG, Gaynes RP. An overview of Nosocomal infections, including the role of the microbiology Laboratory. Clinical Microbiology Revision. 1993, 6:428-442

Yimaz A, Cobian AY, Yelz Y, Tamverdi C, Yidrim TT, Erturan ZZ, Dunipnar BB, Bozdogan BB. Investigation of Plasmid-Mediated quinolone Resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from cystic fibrosis patients. Microbiology Bull. 2011, 45:602-608

Taiwo SS, Okesina AB, Onile BA. Invitro antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of bacterial isolates from wound infections in a University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital. Af. J. Clin. & Experim. Microbiol. 2002, 3(1):6-10

Sule AM, Thanni LOA, Sule-Odu OA, Olusanya O. Bacterial pathogens associated with infected wounds in Ogun state University Teaching Hospital, Sagamu, Nigeria. African Journal of Clinical & Experimental Microbiology. 2002, 3(1):13-16

Ogiwara M, Ishibashi K, Yoshida H, Imafuku Y, Murai M, Igari J. Comparative studies on activities of antimicrobial agents against the causative organisms isolated from patients with urinarytract infections. III. Japan Journal of Antibiotics. 1999, 52:177- 267

Goniugur U, Bakici MZ, Ozdemir L, Akkurt I, Icagasiogh S, Gultekin F. Retrospective analysis of antibiotic susceptibility patterns of respiratory isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a Turkish University Hospital. Ann. Clin Microbiol Antimicrobials. 2003, 2:2-5

Elkholy A, Baseem H, Hall GS, Procop GW, Longworth DL. Antimicrobial resistance in Cairo, Egypt 1999-2000: a survey of five hospitals. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 2003, 51:625-630

Krumpernam PH. Multiple antibiotic resistance indexing Escherichia coli to identify risk sources of faecal contamination of foods. Applied Environmental Microbiology. 1983, 46:165-170

Paul S, Bezbarauh RL, Roy MK, Ghosh AC. Multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index and its reversion in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Letter of Applied Microbiology. 1997, 24:169-171

Daini OA, Effiong MJ, Ogbolu OD. Quinolones Resistance and R _Plasmids of Clinical Isolates of Pseudomonas species. Sudan Journal of Medical Sciences. 2008, 3:139-146

Ogbolu DO, Daini OA, Ogunledun A, Alli AO, Weber MA. High levels of Multidrug Resistance in Clincal Isolates of gram-negative pathogens from Nigeria. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents. 2011, 37:62-66

Sekinguchi J, Asagi T, Miyoshi AT, Fujino T, Kobayeshi I, Morita K, Kikuchi Y, Kuratsyi T, Kirikee T. Multidru Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain that caused an outbreak in a neurosurgery ward and its lae gene cassette encoding a novel aminoglycoside acetyltransferase. Antimicrobial Agents Chemother. 2005, 49:3734-3742

Tsakris A, Vatopoulous AC, Tzouvelekis LS, Legakis NJ. Diversity of resistant phenotypes and plasmid analysis in multi resistant 0:12 Pseudomonas aeruginosa. European Journal of Epidemiology. 1992, 8:865-780

Nikaido H. Multidrug resistance in bacteria. Annual Review of Biochemistry 2009, 78, 119-146.

Liu XZ, Zang I, Poole K. Interplay between the MexAMexBOprM multidrug efflux system and the outer membrane barrier in the multiple antibiotic resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 2000, 45:433-436

Full Text: PDF


  • There are currently no refbacks.

AJCMicrob (ISSN 2572-5815) Copyright © 2012-2017. All rights reserved. Published by Ivy Union Publishing, 3204 Valley Rush Dr, Apex, North Carolina 27502, United States