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An Overview of Monkey-pox Disease

Lord Tertese Angahar

Abstract


Monkeypox is a rare self-limiting viral zoonosis (a virus transmitted to humans from animals) with symptoms in humans similar to those seen in the past in smallpox patients, although less severe. Monkeypox virus (MPV) causes monkeypox disease. The virus belongs to the family: Poxviridae; Subfamily: Chordopoxvirinae; Genus: Orthopoxvirus. MPV was first identified in laboratory monkeys at State Serum Institute in Copenhagen, in 1958.  The first human case of MPV was detected in 1970, in Zaire (Democratic Republic of the Congo—DRC) after smallpox eradication in the country. The primary disease symptoms include: Demonstration of  characteristic prodromal illness for 2 days before the onset of rash with fever, malaise, and lymphadenopathy by most patients. Almost 90% of patients infected with monkeypox develop lymphadenopathy, which is the key feature distinguishing human monkeypox from smallpox. Typical monkeypox rash begins as maculopapular lesions of 2-5 mm in diameter; the rash becomes generalized in distribution in most cases, spreading in centrifugal pattern. Skin lesions progress from papules to vesicles, and pustules followed by umbilication, scabbing, and desquamation over a period of 14-21 days. Skin lesions are observed on mucous membrane, in the mouth, on tongue, and on genitalia. Monkey pox disease mortality rate in Africa is about 10%. The most recent outbreak of Monkeypox disease occurred in 2017, in Nigeria. This paper is a comprehensive review of the: pathology, pathogenesis, epidemiology, signs and symptoms, diagnoses and prevention of monkeypox disease.


Keywords


Orthopoxvirus; Lymphadenopathy; Rodents; Exposure routes; Extracutaneous; Infection

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