Malignant Transformation of Erosive Oral Mucosal Lichen Planus To Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Case Report and a Review of the Literature
Introduction: Oral Mucosal Lichen Planus (OMLP) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease, usually benign that affects all areas of the oral mucosa. Its diagnosis is based on the clinical examination and histological analysis. The erosive form presents a risk of malignant transformation from 0.3% to 3%, justifying the strict surveillance of the disease and effective treatment of relapses.
Case report: This is a 65 years old woman, without specific and non smoking history, reported to the Oral Surgery Department of the Consultation Center of Dental Treatment of Rabat, presenting oral lesions lasting for four years. The intraoral examination revealed the presence of white lesions in the form of plates sitting on the entire right side edge of the tongue. A biopsy was performed and concluded an erosive oral lichen planus which has been transformed to Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
Discussion: Malignant transformation of the OMLP is rare and remains a subject of controversy despite numerous studies that have been devoted. It occurs most often on the atrophic and erosive forms. Several assumptions have been suggested to explain this malignant transformation, but the chronic inflammation seems to be the key factor. Tobacco and alcohol are well known carcinogenic factors, may contribute to the malignant transformation of the OMLP, but it turns out that this disease affects mostly women who have no-smoking Ethylo intoxication. So there must be other factors.
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