Cover Image

Role of Thermosetting Polymer in Structural Composite

Ayesha Kausar

Abstract


Thermosetting resins are network forming polymers with highly crosslinked structure. In this review article, thermoset of epoxy, unsaturated polyester resin, phenolic, melamine, and polyurethane resin have been conversed. Thermosets usually have outstanding tensile strength, impact strength, and glass transition temperature (Tg). Epoxy is the most widely explored class of thermosetting resins. Owing to high stiffness and strength, chemical resistance, good dielectric behavior, corrosion resistance, low shrinkage during curing, and good thermal features, epoxy form the most important class of thermosetting resins for several engineering applications. Here, essential features of imperative thermosetting resins have been discussed such as mechanical, thermal, and non-flammability. At the end, employment of thermosetting resins in technical applications like sporting goods, adhesives, printed circuit board, and aerospace have been included.

References


Reference

Sultan J-N, McGarry F-J. Effect of rubber particle size on deformation mechanisms in glassy epoxy. Polym Engineer Sci 1973, 13: 29-34

Wang T-T, Zupko H-M. Phase separation behavior of rubber-modified epoxies. J Appl Polym Sci 1981, 26: 2391-2401

Anwar Z, Kausar A, Rafique I, Muhammad B. Advances in Epoxy/Graphene Nanoplatelet Composite with Enhanced Physical Properties: A Review. Polym Plast Technol Engineer 2016, 55: 643-662.

Kausar A, Rafique I, Anwar Z, Muhammad, B. Recent Developments in Different Types of Flame Retardant and Effect on Fire Retardancy of Epoxy Composite. Polym Plast Technol Engineer 2016, 55: 1512-1535

Kausar A, Anwar Z, Muhammad, B. Recent Developments in Epoxy/Graphite, Epoxy/Graphene and Epoxy/Graphene Nanoplatelet Composites: A Comparative Review. Polym Plast Technol Engineer 2016, 55, 1192-1210.

Jabeen S, Kausar A, Saeed S, Muhammad B, Gul S. Poly (vinyl alcohol) and Chitosan Blend Cross-linked with Bis Phenol-F-Diglycidyl Ether: Mechanical, Thermal and Water Absorption Investigation. J Chinese Adv Mater Soc 2016, 4, 211-227.

Cash J-J, Davis M-C, Ford M-D, Groshens T-J, Guenthner A-J, Harvey B-G, Sahagun C-M. High T g thermosetting resins from resveratrol. Polym Chem 2013, 4: 3859-3865

Gul S, Kausar A, Mehmood M, Muhammad B, Jabeen S. Progress on Epoxy/Polyamide and Inorganic Nanofiller-based Hybrids: Introduction, Application and Future Potential. Polym Plast Technol Engineer 2016, Doi:10.1080/03602559.2016.1185628

Rafique I, Kausar A, Muhammad B. Composite of DGEBA/TBA epoxy blend and amine-functionalized carbon nanotube: Structural, thermal, nonflammability, and EMI shielding studies. Full Nanotub Carb Nanostruct 2016, 24: 564-576.

Hörold, S. Phosphorus flame retardants in thermoset resins. Polym Degrad Stab 1999, 64: 427-431

Rafique I, Kausar A, Muhammad B. Fabrication and Characterization of High Performance Diglycidyl Ether of Bisphenol-A/Tetrabromobisphenol-A Blend Reinforced with Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube Composite. Polym Plast Technol Engineer 2016, Doi:10.1080/03602559.2016.1233255

Jin F-L, Ma C-J, Park S-J. Thermal and mechanical interfacial properties of epoxy composites based on functionalized carbon nanotubes. Mater Sci Eng 2011, 528: 8517-8522

Anwar Z, Kausar A, Khan LA, Muhammad B. Modified graphene nanoplatelet and epoxy/block copolymer-based nanocomposite: physical characteristic and EMI shielding studies. Nanocomposites. 2016, 2: 141-151

Kim J-K, Datta S. Rubber-thermoset blends: micro and nano structured. In Advances in Elastomers I, Springer, Berlin Heidelberg 2013, 229-262

Ma H, Wei G, Liu Y, Zhang X, Gao J, Huang F, Qiao J. Effect of elastomeric nanoparticles on properties of phenolic resin. Polymer 2005, 46: 10568-10573

Jiang M, Zou X, Huang Y, Liu X. The effect of bismaleimide on thermal, mechanical, and dielectric properties of allyl-functional bisphthalonitrile/bismaleimide system. High Perform Polym 2016, DOI:0954008316667788

Yuan C-Y, Chen S-Y, Tsai C-H, Chiu Y-S, Chen-Yang Y-W. Thermally stable and flame-retardant aromatic phosphate and cyclotriphosphazene-containing poly-urethanes: synthesis and properties. Polym Adv Technol 2005, 16: 393-399.

Huang G, Gao J, Li Y, Han L, Wang X. Functionalizing nano-montmorillonites by modified with intumescent flame retardant: Preparation and application in polyure-thane. Polym Degrad Stabil 2010, 95: 245-253

Gouri C, Nair C-R, Ramaswamy R. Thermoplastic film adhesives based on phenol-functional acrylic copolymers: synthesis, mechanical and adhesion properties. J Adhes Sci Technol 2001, 15: 823-839

Kausar A. Review on Structure, Properties and Appliance of Essential Conjugated Polymers. Am J Polym Sci Engineer 2016, 4: 91-102.

Misra S-C, Manson J-A, Sperling L-H. Epoxy Resins Chemistry. ACS Symposium 1979, 114: 137

Meador M-A. Recent advances in the development of processable high-temperature polymers 1. Annual Rev Mater Sci 1998, 28: 599-630

Williams R-J, Rozenberg B-A, Pascault J-P. Reaction-induced phase

separation in modified thermosetting polymers. Polym Anal Polym Phys Spring Berlin Heidelberg 1997, 95-156

Rughooputh S-D-D, Hotta S, Heeger A-J, Wudl F. Polym Sci Part B: Polym Phys 1987, 25: 1071

Kinloch A-J, Yuen M-L, Jenkins S-D. Thermoplastic-toughened epoxy polymers. J Mater Sci 1994, 29: 3781-3790

Girard‐Reydet E, Vicard V, Pascault J-P, Sautereau H. Polyetherimide‐modified epoxy networks: Influence of cure conditions on morphology and mechanical properties. J Appl Polym Sci 1997, 65, 2433-2445

Kausar A. Nanodiamond/mwcnt-based polymeric nanofiber reinforced poly (bisphenol a-co-epichlorohydrin). Malaysian Polym J 2015, 10: 23-32.

Jabeen S, Kausar A, Saeed S, Muhammad B, Gul S, Farooq M. Crosslinking of alginic acid/chitosan matrices using bis phenol-F-diglycidyl ether: mechanical, thermal and water absorption investigation. Int J Plast Technol 2016, 20: 159-174.

Guo Q, Zheng H, Zheng S, Mi Y, Zhu W. Phase behaviour, mechanical properties and thermal stability of thermosetting polymer blends of unsaturated polyester resin and poly (ethylene oxide). J Mater Sci 1999,

: 123-128

Venderbosch R-W, Meijer H-E-H, Lemstra P-J. Processing of intractable polymers using reactive solvents: 1. Poly (2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene ether)/epoxy resin. Polymer 1994, 35: 4349-4357

Simon S-L, Gillham J-K. Cure kinetics of a thermosetting liquid dicyanate ester monomer/high‐Tg polycyanurate material. J Appl Polym Sci 1993, 47: 461-485

Li C, Medvedev G-A, Lee E-W, Kim J, Caruthers J-M, Strachan A. Molecular dynamics simulations and experimental studies of the thermomechanical response of an epoxy thermoset polymer. Polymer 2012, 53: 4222-4230

Li C, Strachan A. Molecular dynamics predictions of thermal and mechanical properties of thermoset polymer EPON862/DETDA. Polymer 2011, 52: 2920-2928

Chen X, Dam M-A, Ono K, Mal Shen H, Nutt S-R, Wudl F. A thermally re-mendable cross-linked polymeric material. Science 2002, 295: 1698-1702

Chen X, Wudl F, Mal A-K, Shen H, Nutt S-R. New thermally remendable highly cross-linked polymeric materials. Macromolecules 2003, 36: 1802-1807

Hauk A, Sklorz M, Bergmann G, Hutzinger O. Analysis and toxicity testing of combustion gases. 2. Characterization of combustion products from halogenfree flame-retardant duroplastic polymers for electronics. J

Anal Appl Pyrolysis 1995, 31: 141-156

Mauerer O. New reactive, halogen-free flame retardant system for epoxy resins. Polym Degrad Stab 2005, 88: 70-73

Luda M-P, Balabanovich A-I, Zanetti M, Guaratto D. Thermal decomposition of fire retardant brominated epoxy resins cured with different nitrogen containing hardeners. Polym Degrad Stab 2007, 92: 1088-1100

Horrocks A-R, Zhang J, Hall M-E. Flammability of polyacrylonitrile and its copolymers. II. Thermal behavior and mechanism of degradation. Polym Int 1994, 33, 303-314

Wu C-S, Liu Y-L, Hsu K- Y. Maleimide-epoxy resins: preparation, thermal properties, and flame retardance. Polymer 2003, 44: 565-573

Kausar A. Thermal, mechanical and flame retardant behavior of poly (urethane-ester) nanocomposite foams reinforced with hydroxyl modified montmorillonite. Int J Plast Technol 2015, 19: 275-287.

Mouritz A-P, Gibson A-G. Flame Retardant Composites, In: Gladwell, G.M.L. (series ed.), Fire Properties of Polymer Composite Materials, Springer London 2006, pp. 237-286

Kausar A. Development of Non-flammable Poly [(o-cresyl glycidyl ether)-co-formaldehyde] System with Poly (ethylene glycol) bis (amine) and Bis (4-trifluoromethylphenyl) phosphine. Int J Compos Mater 2016, 6: 129-132.

Chapple S, Anandjiwala R. Flammability of natural fiber-reinforced composites and strategies for fire retardancy: a review. J Thermoplast Compos Mater 2010, 23: 871-893

Wong E-W, Sheehan P-E, Lieber C-M. Nanobeam mechanics: elasticity, strength, and toughness of nanorodes and nanotubes. Science 1997, 277: 1971-1975

Kausar A, Rafique I, Muhammad B. A Review on Applications of Polymer/Carbon nanotube and Epoxy/CNT Composites. Polym Plast Technol Engineer 2016, DOI:10.1080/0360559.2016.1163588

Lan X, Liu Y-J, Lv H-B, Wang X-H, Leng J-S, Du S-Y. Fiber reinforced shape memory polymer composite and its application in a deployable hinge. Smart Mater Struct 2009, 18: 024002

Hu J-L, Zhu Y, Huang H-H, Lu J. Recent advances in shape memory polymers: structures, mechanism, functionality, modeling and applications. Prog Polym Sci 2012, 37: 1720-1763

Tobushi H, Hara H, Yamada E, Hayashi S. Thermomechanical properties in a thin film of shape memory polymer of polyurethane series. Smart Mater Struct 1996, 5: 483-491

Raghava R-S. Development and characterization of thermosetting-thermoplastic polymer blends for applications in damage-tolerant composites. J Polym Sci Part B: Polym Phys 1988, 26: 65-81


Full Text: PDF

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


AJPSE(ISSN 2572-5734)Copyright © 2012-2017. All rights reserved. Published by Ivy Union Publishing, 3204 Valley Rush Dr, Apex, North Carolina 27502, United States