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Fish Liver Biomarkers for Heavy Metal Pollution: A Review Article

Rashid Alijani Ardeshir, Abdol-Ali Movahedinia, Sara Rastgar

Abstract


Heavy metals as dangerous and long lasting pollutants in environment have been widely studied and monitored. Liver is the most important organ in storage and detoxification of these pollutants. Assessment of indicators, including changes in intermediate active components between the liver and pollution effect, provide sensitive liver biomarkers and can be a suitable index for health condition of fish. In addition, fish liver is a favorite model to study interaction between environmental factors and liver structure and performance. This review studies variety of liver biomarkers in molecular- cellular (damage to chromosome, DNA and lysosome; increasing metallothionein and ferritin levels), biochemical-physiological (transaminase enzymes and oxidative enzyme parameters) and morphological-histopathological levels, and investigates advantages and disadvantages of these levels. Moreover, restrictions and landscape in the future is discussed for these biomarkers exposed to heavy metals pollution. There are many liver biomarkers that can be used for identification of initial heavy metal pollution, assessment of health condition of fish and ability of fish to defense against pollution challenges. Some of these biomarkers are special for heavy metal pollution while the others are non-special

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