Applications of Probiotics in Aquaculture

Lord Tertese Angahar


The growth of aquaculture is constrained by disease among others. The traditional application of chemotherapeutical or antimicrobial agents as remedies or prophylactic measure in aquaculture facilities is limited. This is due to the development abtibiotics resistance strains. The development of resistance and bioaccumulation are growing public health concern. The need for resistant free, safer, low cost and environmental friendly alternatives has become imperative. Probiotics is widely acclaimed as the needed option which may in future supplant or complement antimicrobial drugs. This review provides an extensive report on probiotics and its history, the concept of aquatic probiotic, selection and qualities of probiotics, its applications in aquaculture, methods of administration and mechanism of action, with a summary on the benefits of probiotics, and issues with use of antibiotics in aquaculture.


Probiotics; antibiotics; bioprophylaxis; biotherapeutics; resistance; chemotheraphy

Full Text:



FAO. The state of food insecurity in the world. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization press. 2006, 234-240

Cruz PM, Ibanez AL, Saad HCR. Use of Probiotics in Aquaculture. Int Sch Res Network Microbio. 2012, 4:1-6

FAO. The state of World Fisheries and Aquaculture. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization press. 2012, 25-26

Rana KJ. Status of Global Production and production trend. FAO circular paper. Rome. Food and Agriculture Organization press. 2012, 886:3-16

Verschuere L, Rombaut G, Sorgeloos T. Probiotics as Biological Control Agents in Aquaculture. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2000, 64(4):656-657

Kolndadacha OD, Adikwu IA, Okaeme AN. The Role of Probiotics in Aquaculture in Nigeria. Conti J Fisheries and Aqua. Sci;2011, 5(1):8-15

White W, Klare I, Werner G. Selective pressure by antibiotics as feed additives. Infect. 1999, 27(2):35-38

Lewin CS. Mechanism of Resistance Development in Aquatic microorganism. Aqua. 1992, 288-301

Balcazar JL, Blas IR, Cummingha DV. The Role of Probiotics in Aquaculture. Vet Micro. 2006, 5. 114: 3-4

Weber JI, Mintz ED, Cañizares R, Semiglia A, Gomez I, Sempértegui R, Dávila A, Greene KD, Puhr ND, Cameron DN, et al. Epidemic cholera in Ecuador: multidrug-resistance and transmission by water and seafood. Epidemiol Infect. 1994, 112(1):1-11

Jonston P and Santillo D. Chemical Usage in Aquaculture: Implications for residues in Market products. University of Exeter press Uk. 2002:3

Romero J, Fejjoo G , Navarete P. Antibiotics in Aquaculture – use, Abuse and Alternatives. 2014: 161-184.Retrived at

Hosono A. Fermented Milk in the orient .In: Nagasawa. Y and Hosono A (Ed) Functions of Fermented Milk: Challenges for the Health Sciences. Elesvier Applied Science, London Uk 1992:61-78)

Shortt C. The probiotic Century. Historical and current Perspectives. Trends Food Sci Technol.1999, 10:411-417

WHO/FAO. Guidelines for the Evaluation of Probiotics in Food. Onterio Canada: 2002

WHO/FAO. Expert Consultation on Evaluation of Health and Nutritional properties of probiotics in food including powdered milk with Lactic Acid bacteria. Corodoba, Argentina 2000:2-3

Metchnikoff E. Probiotics. Journal of Life science. 2000, 3(2):9-17

Lilly DM and Stillwell RH. Growth- promoting factors produced by microorganism. Science. 1965, 147:747-748

Fuller R. Probiotics in man and animal. J of Appli Bacterio. 1989, 66(5):365-378

Nwogu NA, Olaji ED, Egomwanre AF. Application of probiotics in Nigerian Aquaculture: current status, challenges and prospects. Inter Res J of Microbio. 2011,2(7):215-219

Azevedo R.V and Braga L.T. Use of Probiotics in Aquaculture. INTECH

Balcazar JL. Use of Probiotics in Aquaculture: general aspects. Aqua.2006, 4(6):134-154

Moriarity D. The role of microorganisms in Aquaculture. Aqua Res. 1997, 151:333-349

Jin L.Z, Ho Y.W, Abdullah, Jalaludin S. Probiotics in Poultry: Mode of action. World Poultry Sci J. 1997, 53(4):351-368

Fuller R. Problems and Prospects. In Fuller R (Ed). Probiotics –The scientific basis. London: Chapman and Hall.1992:377-386

Joborn A, Olsson J.C, Westerdah P.L . Colonization in fish intestinal tract and Production of Inhibitory substances in intestinal Mucus and faecal extracts by carnobacterium sp. strain K1. J Fish Dis. 1997,20:383-392

Gibson LF, Woodworth J, George A.M. Probiotics activity of Aeromonas media on Crassostrea gigas, when challenged with Vibrio tubiashii. Aqua. 1998,169 (1-2):11-120

Rengpipat S.T, Phianphak W, Piyatiratit S. Effects of a probiotic bacterium in P. monodon survival and growth. Aqua. 1998, 167:3-4

Robertson PA, Dowd C, Burrells C, Williams P. Use of Carnobacterium sp. as a probiotic for Atlantic Salmon and rainbow trout. Aqua. 2000, 185(3-4):235-245

Moriarty D. Control of Luminous vibrio sp. in penaeid aquaculture ponds. Aqua.1998, 164:351-358

Bly J.E, Quindou S.M, Lawson L.A. Inhibition of saprolegnia pathogenic for fish by Pseudomonas fluorescents. J of Fish Dis. 1997, 20:35-40

Austin B, Baudet , Stobie M. Inhibition of Bacteria fish pathogens by Tetraselmis suecica. J of Fish Dis. 1992, 15:53-61

Smit P and Davey S. Evidence for the competitive exclusion of Aeromonas salmonicida from fish with stress inducible furuncullosis by a fluorescent pseudomonad. J Fish Dis. 1993, 16:521-521

Gram L, Melchiorsen J, Spanggard I, Nielsen T. Inhibition of vibrio anguillarium by Pseudomonas fluorescence strain AH2- a possible treatment of fish. Appl Environ Microbio. 1990, 65:969-973

Nikoskelainen S, Ouwehand A, Salminen S. Protection of rainbow trout from furunculosis by Lactobacillus rhamnosus. Aqua. 2001, 198 (3-40):229-236

Lalloo R, Ramehuran D, Ramdath J. G, Gardiner N. Isolation and selection of Bacillus sp. as potential biological agents for enhancement of water quality in culture of ornamental fish. J of Applied Microbio. 2007, 103(5) :1471-1479

Qi Z, Zhang X, Boon N, Bossier P. Probiotics in Aquaculture of China- Current state, problems and prospect. Aquaculture Elsevier. 2009, 290:15-21

Wang A, Zheng G, Liao S, Huang H. Diversity analysis of bacteria capable of removing nitrate/nitrate in a Shrimp pond. Acta Ecologica Sinica. 2007, 27(5): 1937-1943

Dalmin G, Kathiresan K and Puruhothaman A. effects of Probiotics on Bacteria population and health status of shrimp in culture pond ecosystem. Indian J Exp Bio. 2001, 39:939-942

Santos G. Probiotics: An essential tool in intensive shrimp aquaculture. Biomin press. 2002

Boyd CE and Gross A. Use of probiotics for improving soil and water quality in aquaculture ponds. J Biotech. 1998, 3: 67-89

Holtz S. Reducing and phasing out the use of antibiotics and growth promoters in Canadian agriculture .2009 Canada. Canadian Institute for environmental Law and Policy publication

Gustafson R.H and Bowen R.E. Antibiotics use in animal agriculture. J of Appli Microbio. 1997, 83:531-541

Phiamphak W, Rengpipat S, Piyatir, Atitivorakul S and Menasveta P. Probiotics use of Lactobacillus sp for black tiger shrimp. J Sci Res Chula Univ. 1999, 24:42-51

Tuan T.N, Duc P.M ,Hatai K . Overview of the case of probiotics in Aquaculture. Int J of Res in Fisheries and Aqua. 2013, 3 (3):89-97

Ringo E, Strom E ,Tabachek J. Intestinal micro flora of Salmonids : A Review. Aquacult Res. 1995, 26:773-789

Yassir RY, Adel ME, Azze A. Use of probiotic bacteria as growth promoters , antibacterial and the effect on physiological parameters of Orechromis niloticus. J of Fish Dis. 2002, 22:633-642

Franca FM, Diass DC, Texixeira PC, Marcantonio AS. Efeito do probiotico Bacillus subtilis no crescimento, sobrevivencia fisiologia de ras-touro (Rana catesbeiana). bolentin do Instituto de pesca. 2008, 34(3):403-412

Moriarity D.J . Probiotics and bioremediation in aquaculture. Asian shrimp news. 1996, 26(3):14-17

Noh AC. The role of probiotics in Nigerian Aquaculture- A review. Conti J Fisheries of Aquati Sci.1994, 5(1):8-15

Ugwaba CO and Chukwuji C.A. The economics of catfish production in Anambra state, Nigeria: A profit function approach. J. of Agri. and social sci; 2010, 640:105-109

Gatesoupe FJ. Lactic acid bacteria increase the resistance of turbot larvae. Scophthalamus maximus against Pathogenic vibrio. Aqua Living Resour.1994, 7(2):277-282

Ghosh S, Sinha A, Sahu C. Effects of probiotics on reproductive performance in female live-bearing Ornamental fish. Aqua Res.2007, 38(3):518-527

Abasali H and Mohammad S. Effect of dietary supplementation with probiotic on reproductive performance of female livebearing ornamental fish. Res J of Ani. Sci.2010, 4(4) 103-107

Olsson J. C, Joborn A, Westerdahl A, Blomberg ,Conway. Survival Persistence and proliferation [of] Vibrio anguillarum in juvenile turbot Scophthalmus maximus . Intestine and faeces. J Fish Dis.1998, 21:1-9

Eli A, Briyai O F and Abowe J.N. A review on some fungi infection in African cat fish saprolegniasis, dermal mycoses, Branchiomyces infection, systemic mycoses and dermocytidium. Asian J of Medic Sci. 2011,3(5):198-205

Sakai M, Yoshida T, Koboyashi M. Enhancement of resistance to vibriosis in Onchohynchus mykiss by oral administration of Clostridium butyrium bacteria. J Fish Dis. 1995, 18:187-190

Carnevali O, Zamponi M.C and Cresci A. Administration of probiotic strain to improve sea bream wellness during development. Aqua Intl. 2004, 12 (4-5):377-386

Ogunshe A. O and Olabode P.O. Antimicrobial potentials of indigenous lactobacillus strain on gram negative indictor bacterial species from Clarias gariepinus. Afr J Microbiol Res. 2009, 3(13):870-876

Kumar R, Mukherjee S.C and Pal A.K. Evaluation of Bacillus subtilis as a probiotic to Indian major carp Labeo rohita. AquaRes.2006, 37(12)1215-1221

Irianto A and Austin B. Probiotics in Aquaculture. J Of Fish Dis. 2002, 25:633-642

Einar W. The Role of probiotics in Aquaculture in Nigeria, a review. Conti J Fish & Aquatic Sci. 2002, 1(1):8-15

Indian govt. Paper on materials safety: Potassium permanganate; Libox chem. India; 2010 Available at

Australian govt. Copper and compounds: Department of the environment and water resources; May 2007, Available at substance-info

Wooster L. Human Health Risk associated with formaldehyde treatments used in aquaculture. American J Of Aqua. 2005, 67:111-113


  • There are currently no refbacks.

AJCMicrob (ISSN 2572-5815) Copyright © 2012-2020. All rights reserved. Published by Ivy Union Publishing, 3204 Valley Rush Dr, Apex, North Carolina 27502, United States