Cover Image

Preliminary Study on Small Ruminant GIT Helminthiasis in Select Arid and Semi-arid Pastoral and Agro-pastoral Areas of Afar Region, Ethiopia

hailegebrael bedada, Fikru Gizaw, Wossene Negash


A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and identification of GIT parasites of sheep and goats in two selected districts of Afar from December 2014 to February 2016. Totally 590 faecal samples were collected from small ruminants (332 goat and 258 sheep) managed in pastoral and agro-pastoral production. Out of the total examined small ruminant 87.8% (518) were found to harbor one or more genera of helminth parasites. The result of the study revealed that 92.2% (306) of the goats and 82.2% (212) of the sheep were found positive for GIT parasites. Helminth parasites identified in small ruminant of the study area were Strongyles, Fasciola, Strongyloides, Paramphistomum, Trichuris, Ascaris and Monezia. The risk of infection with GIT helminth parasites in goats were 4.009 times higher than sheep (OR=4.009, p=0.011). Age and sex related difference was not observed in the prevalence of helminth parasites in sheep and goats. Significantly (OR=0.119, p=0.000) higher prevalence of overall helminth parasites in poor body condition sheep and goats than good body condition was observed. Likewise significant variation in overall parasite prevalence was observed between the study districts (OR=0.169, p=0.000). In this study, species of the animals, origin, and body condition score are important risk factors associated with gastrointestinal parasites in the study area. In the study area nutrition is generally poor, low productivity in small ruminants is likely to be aggravated by a high prevalence of polyparasitism.


Helminths; Small ruminants; Prevalence; Afar Region; Ethiopia

Full Text:



UNECA. Report on livestock value chains in eastern and southern Africa: a regional perspective, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia19 - 21 November, 2012

CSA. Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, Central Statistical Agency Agricultural Sample Survey. Report on livestock and livestock characteristics; Volume II, Addis Ababa, March 2012

FAO. Ethiopia FAO’s Information system on water and agriculture. Http/ www Rome. Italy, 2005

Chanie M, Begashaw S. Assessment of the Economic Impact and Prevalence of Ovine Fasciolosis in Menz Lalo Midir District, Northeast Ethiopia. Vet. World. 2012, 5(5):261-264

Gebreyesus M. Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminthes of small ruminants (sheep and goats) in Gonder Administrative Region. DVM thesis, Faculty of veterinary medicine, Addis Ababa Univ. DebreZeit, Ethiopia,1986

Bayou A. Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminthes of small ruminants in Buno province, Illubabor Administrative Region. DVM thesis Faculty of Veterinary medicine, Addis Ababa University, Debre-Zeit, Ethiopia, 1992

Dereje G. Investigation of common Gastrointestinal parasite of small ruminants in and around Wolaita Soddo. DVM thesis, Faculty of Veterinary medicine, Addis Ababa University. Debre-Zeit, Ethiopia, 1992

Genene R. A study of prevalence of ovine GIT helminthes in and around kombolcha. DVM thesis, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Addis Ababa University, Debre Zeit, Ethiopia, 1994

Tefera M, Batu G, Bitew M. Prevalence of Gastrointestinal Parasites of Sheep and Goats In and Around Bedelle, South-Western Ethiopia. The Internet Journal of Veterinary Medicine. 2011, 8: 3-5

Bersisa K, Tigist T, Teshale S, Reta D, Bedru H. helminths in sheep and goats in centreal oromia during the dry season. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances. 2011, 10(14) :1845-1849

Bikila E, Yeshitla A, Worku T, Teka F, Benti D. Epidemiology of Gastrointestinal Parasites of Small Ruminants in Gechi District, Southwest Ethiopia. Advances in Biological Research. 2013, 7 (5):169-174

Tesfaheywet Z. Helminthosis of sheep and goats in and around Haramaya, Southeastern Ethiopia. Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health. 2012, 4(3):48-55

Petros A, Lakew N. Prevalence of Gastrointestinal Parasites of Small Ruminants in Kuarit District, North West Ethiopia. African Journal of Basic & Applied Sciences. 2014, 6 (5): 125-130

Bashir AL, Chishti FA, Hidayatullah T. A Survey of Gastrointestinal Helminthes Parasites of Slaughtered Sheep and Goats in Ganderbal, Kashmir. Global Veterinaria. 2012, 8(4):338-341

Temesgen T. Study on prevalence of ovine gastrointestinal parasite in and around Bedelle. DVM thesis, Haramaya University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Haramaya, Ethiopia, 2008

Radiostits OM, Gray CC, Hinchelift KW, Constable PD. Veterinary Medicine. A textbook of the disease of cattle, horses, sheep, pigs and goats, 10th edition. Sunders, Saunders Elsevier, London, 2007

Fikru R, Teshale S, Reta D, Yosef K. Epidemiology of gastrointestinal parasites of ruminants in Western Oromia, Ethiopia. International Journal of Applied Research Veterinary Medicine. 2006, 1:451-457

Keyyu JD, Kassuku AA, Kyvsgaard NC, Willingham AL. Gastrointestinal nematodes in indigenous zebu cattle under pastoral and nomadic management systems in the lower plain of Southern highlands of Tanzania. Vet Res Commun. 2003, 27(5):371-380

Raza MA, Iqbal Z, Jabbar A, Yaseen M. Point prevalence of gastrointestinal helminthiasis in ruminants in southern Punjab. Pakistan. J Helminthol. 2007, 81:323-328

Abebe R, Gebreyohannes M, Mekuria S, Abunna F, Regassa A. Gastro-intestinal nematode infection in small ruminant under traditional husbandry system during dry season in southern Ethiopia. Trop Anim Health. 2010, 42:1111-1117

Dagnachew S, Asmare A, Wudu T. Epidemiology of gastrointestinal helminthiasis of small ruminants in selected sites of North Gondar zone. Northwest Ethiopia. Ethiop Vet J. 2011

Teklye B. Epidemiology of endoparasites of small ruminants in sub-saharan Africa. Proceedings of Fourth National Livestock Improvement Conference. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 13-15 November 1991:7-11

Waruiru RM, Mutune MN, Otieno RO. Gastrointestinal parasite infections of sheep and goats in a semi-arid area of Machakos District, Kenya. Bull Anim Health Prod Afr. 2005, 53(1):25-34

Urquhart GM, Armour J, Duncan JL, Dunn AM, Jennings FW. Veterinary parasitology. 1996, 2nd ed., Blackwell science Ltd, UK pp 141-205

Fritsch T, Kaufmann J. Ptister K. Parasite spectrum and seasonal epidemiology of gastrointestinal nematodes of small ruminants in Gambia. Veterinary Parasitology. 1993, 49(2-4):271-283

Gamble HR, Zajak AM. Resistance of St. Croix lambs to Haemonchus contortus in experimentally and naturally acquired infections. Veterinary Parasitology. 1992, 41: 211-225

Colditz IG, Watson DL, Gray GD. Eady SJ. Some relationships between age, immune responsiveness and resistance to the parasites in ruminants. International Journal of Parasitology. 1996, 26: 869-877

Ahmed N. Prevalence of GIT helminthes and the comparative efficiency test of nematocidal drugs in goats of Wallaga administrative region at Mechara settlement area. DVM thesis, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Addis Ababa University, Debre-Zeit, Ethiopia, 1988

Sissay MM. Helminth parasites of sheep and goats in eastern Ethiopia: Epidemiology, and anthelmintic resistance and its management. Doctoral thesis, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden, 2007

Odoi A, Gathuma JM, Gachuiri CK, Omore A. Risk factors of gastrointestinal nematode parasite infections in small ruminants kept in smallholder mixed farms in Kenya. BMC Vet Res. 2007, 3:6

Hailelul N. Study on prevalence of GIT helminthes of small ruminants in and around Wolayta Soddo, southern Ethiopia. DVM thesis, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Addis Ababa University, Debre-Zeit. Ethiopia, 2002

Kumba F, Katjivena H, Kauta G, Lutaaya E. Seasonal evolution of faecal egg output by gastrointestinal worms in goats on communal farms in Eastern Namibia. Onderstepoort J Vet Res. 2003, 70(4):265-271

Githigia SM, Thamsborg SM, Munyua WK, Maingi N. Impact of gastrointestinal helminths on production in goats Kenya. Small Rumin Res. 2001, 42: 21-29

Ntonifor H, Shei S, Ndaleh N, Mbunkur G. Epidemiological studies of gastrointestinal parasitic infections in ruminants in Jakiri, Bui division, North West region of Cameroon. J Vet Med Anim Health. 2013, 5(12):344-352

Tesfaye H. Ovine and bovine helminthiasis in Kelala (South Wollo). Ethiopian Vet Association Proceedings of the 12th Conference. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; June 1998:30-34

Soulsby EJC. Helminthes, Arthropods and Protozoa of Domestic Animals, 7th edition, Lea and Faebiger, Philadelphia, 1982

Hansen J, Perry B. The Epidemiology, Diagnosis and Control of Helminth Parasites of Ruminants. A handbook. 2nd edition. ILRAD (International Laboratory for Research on Animal Diseases), Nairobi, Kenya, 1994

Gareth WH. Nematode Parasites of Small Ruminants, Camelids and Cattle: Diagnosis with Emphasis on Anthelmintic Efficacy and Resistance Testing. Australia and New Zealand Standard Diagnostic Procedures, 2009

ANRS. Afar National Regional State: Programme of Plan on Adaptation to Climate Change, Report, Semera. 2010. change-adaptation-program-pdf-d127720299


  • There are currently no refbacks.

AJP Copyright © 2012-2021. All rights reserved. Published by Ivy Union Publishing, 3204 Valley Rush Dr, Apex, North Carolina 27502, United States