Cover Image

Amalgamation of Nanodiamond and Epoxy

Ayesha Kausar


Nanoscale diamond particles are known as nanodiamond (ND). Nanodiamond has attracted much attention of the polymeric composite community. Owing to its superior properties, ND holds great potential to improve tribological characteristics of the composites. In epoxy/nanodiamond nanocomposite, large surface to volume ratio of ND results in dramatic increase in volume of inter-phase, i.e. polymer volume which is close enough to nanodiamond. This, in turn, allows nanodiamond to exert significant impact on epoxy properties even at low concentrations. It is critically important to have physical/covalent bond at epoxy/ND interface from nanoparticle surface to the macromolecules of the matrix. Mechanical properties, thermal properties, and electrical conductivity of the covalently compatiblized epoxy/ND composite have been found better than neat epoxy matrices and compatible composites. Epoxy/ND composite has huge range of technical applications ranging from biomedical—to—electronics—to—aerospace.

Full Text:



Kausar A, Ashraf R, Siddiq M. Polymer/nanodiamond composites in Li-ion batteries: A review. Polym-Plast Technol Engineer. 2014, 53:550-563

Ashraf R, Kausar A, Siddiq M. High-performance polymer/nanodiamond composites: synthesis and properties. Iran Polym J. 2014, 23:531-545

Rosenholm JM, Vlasov II, Burikov SA, Dolenko TA, Shenderova OA. Nanodiamond-Based composite structures for biomedical imaging and drug delivery. J Nanosci Nanotechnol. 2015, 15:959-971

Jabeen S, Kausar A, Muhammad B, Gul S, Farooq M. A review on polymeric nanocomposites of nanodiamond, carbon nanotube, and nanobifiller: Structure, preparation and properties. Polym-Plast Technol Engineer. 2015, 54:1379-1409

Ashraf R, Kausar A, Siddiq M. Preparation and properties of multilayered polymer/nanodiamond composites via an in situ technique. J Polym Engineer. 2014, 34:415-429

Attia NF, Rao JP, Geckeler KE. Nanodiamond–polymer nanoparticle composites and their thin films. J Nanopart Res. 2014, 16:2361

Khan DM, Kausar A, Salman SM. Exploitation of Nanobifiller in Polymer/Graphene Oxide–Carbon Nanotube, Polymer/Graphene Oxide–Nanodiamond, and Polymer/Graphene Oxide–Montmorillonite Composite: A Review. Polym-Plast Technol Engineer. 2016, 55:744-768

Ashraf R, Kausar A, Siddiq M. Preparation and properties of layered carbon nanotube/polyazopyridine/nanodiamond composites. J Plast Film Sheet. 2014, 30:412-434

Kausar A. Nanodiamond/mwcnt-based polymeric nanofiber reinforced poly (bisphenol a-co-epichlorohydrin). Malaysian Polym J. 2015, 10:23-32

Kausar A. Properties of Sol-gel Coated Fibers of Polyamide 6/12/Polyvinylpyrrolidone/Nanodiamond. Int J Mater Chem. 2015, 5:91-95

Danilenko, V. V. On the history of the discovery of nanodiamond synthesis. Phys Solid Stat. 2004, 46:595-599

Rao CNR, Satishkumar BC, Govindaraj A, Nat M. Nanotubes. Chem Phys Chem. 2001, 2:78-105

Osawa E. Single-nano buckydiamond particles: Synthesis strategies, characterization methodologies and emerging applications. In: Ho, D. ed. Nanodiamond-applications in biology and nanoscale medicine. New York, 2010, 1:1-33

Jabeen S, Kausar A, Muhammad B, Gul S, Farooq M. A Review on Polymeric Nanocomposites of Nanodiamond, Carbon Nanotube, and Nanobifiller: Structure, Preparation and Properties. Polym Plast Technol Eng. 2015, 54:1379-1409

Liu X, Pichler T, Knupfer M, Golden M S, Fink J, Kataura H, Achiba Y. Detailed analysis of the mean diameter and diameter distribution of single-wall carbon nanotubes from their optical response. Phys Rev B. 2002, 66:045411

Work W J, Horie K, Hess M, Stepto R F T. Definition of terms related to polymer blends, composites, and multiphase polymeric materials (IUPAC Recommendations 2004). Pure. Appl. Chem. 2004, 76:1985-2007

Shenderova O A, Zhirnov V V, Brenner D W. Carbon nanostructures. Critical Rev Sol Stat Mater Sci. 2002, 27:227-356

Li L, Davidson J L, Lukehart C M. Surface functionalization of nanodiamond particles via atom transfer radical polymerization. Carbon. 2006, 44:2308-2315

Dolmatov V Y. Detonation-synthesis nanodiamonds: synthesis, structure, properties and applications. Russ Chem Rev. 2007, 76:339

Kurkin T S, Ozerin A N, Kechekyan A S, Ozerina L A, Obolonkova E S, Beshenko M A, Dolmatov V Y. Structure of oriented fibers based on poly(vinyl alcohol) modified by detonation nanodiamonds. Polym Sci Series A. 2008, 50:43-50

Behler K D, Stravato A, Mochalin V, Korneva G, Yushin G, Gogotsi Y. Nanodiamond-polymer composite fibers and coatings. ACS nano. 2009, 3:363-369

Mochalin VN, Gogotsi Y. Nanodiamond–polymer composites. Diam Relat Mater. 2015, 58:161-171

Ullah M, Kausar A, Siddiq M, Subhan M, Abid Zia M. Reinforcing effects of modified nanodiamonds on the physical properties of polymer-based nanocomposites: A review. Polym Plast Technol Eng. 2015, 54:861-879

Kausar A. Formation and properties of poly (vinyl butyral-co-vinyl alcohol-co-vinyl acetate)/polystyrene composites reinforced with graphene oxide-nanodiamond. Am J Polym Sci. 2014, 4:54-62

Kausar A, Ashraf R. Electrospun, non-woven, nanofibrous membranes prepared from nano-diamond and multi-walled carbon nanotube-filled poly (azo-pyridine) and epoxy composites reinforced with these membranes. J Plast Film Sheet. 2014, 30:369-387

Kausar A. Thermal and Rheological Properties of Waterborne Polyurethane/Nanodiamond Composite. Nanoscience and Nanotechnology. 2016, 6:6-10

Kausar A. Effect of Sol-gel Coating on Microscopic, Thermal and Water Absorption Behavior of Aramid/Nylon 6/6/Nanodiamond-based Fibers. Am J Curr Org Chem. 2015, 1:60-68

Kausar A. Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Polyamide 1010 Composites Filled with Nanodiamond/Graphitized Carbon Black Nanoparticles. Am J Polym Sci. Eng. 2015, 3:161-171

Kausar A. Polyaniline Composites with Nanodiamond, Carbon nanotube and Silver Nanoparticle: Preparation and Properties. Am J Polym Sci. Eng. 2015, 3:149-160

Kausar A. Poly (bisphenol A-co-epichlorohydrin) and Nanodiamonds/Poly (azo-pyridine)/Polyamide/Multi-walled Carbon Nanotube-based Nanofiber Nanocomposites. Am J Polym Sci. Eng. 2014, 2:35-50

Kausar A. A Study on Waterborne Polyurethane Coated Polyamide 11 Fiber and Composite Fiber with Nanodiamond. Int J Mater Chem. 2015, 5:101-105

Kausar A. Design and Study of Epoxy Composites based on Polycaprolactone and Nanodiamond Functionalized Carbon Fibers. Am J Polym Sci. Eng. 2015, 3:50-60

Špitalský Z, Kromka A, Matějka L, Černoch P, Kovářová J, Kotek J, Šlouf M. Effect of nanodiamond particles on properties of epoxy composites. Adv Compos Lett. 2008, 17:29-34

Stravato A, Knight R, Mochalin V, Picardi S C. HVOF-sprayed nylon-11+nanodiamond composite coatings: production & characterization. J Therm Spray Technol. 2008, 17:812-817

Cadek M, Coleman J N, Barron V, Hedicke K, Blau WJ. Morphological and mechanical properties of carbon-nanotube-reinforced semicrystalline and amorphous polymer composites. Appl Phys Lett. 2002, 81:5123-5125

Neitzel I, Mochalin V, Knoke I, Palmese G R, Gogotsi Y. Mechanical properties of epoxy composites with high contents of nanodiamond. Compos Sci technol. 2011, 71:710-716

Kausar A. Role of Thermosetting Polymer in Structural Composite. Am J Polym Sci Engineer. 2017, 5:1-2

Raman V I, Palmese G R. Influence of tetrahydrofuran on epoxy−amine polymerization. Macromolecules 2005, 38:6923-6930

Gavrilov NN, Okotrub AV, Bulusheva LG, Sedelnikova OV, Yushina IV, Kuznetsov VL. Dielectric properties of polystyrene/ onion-like carbon composites in frequency range of 0.5–500 kHz. Compos Sci Technol. 2010, 70:719-724

Ullah M, Kausar A, Siddiq M, Subhan M, Abid Zia M. Reinforcing Effects of Modified Nanodiamonds on the Physical Properties of Polymer-Based Nanocomposites: A Review. Polym Plast Technol Eng. 2015, 54:861-879

Monteiro S N, de Menezes G W, Bobrovnitchii G S, Skury A L D, Rodriguez R J S, d'Almeida J R M. Structure and mechanical properties of composites with diamond particles dispersed into modified epoxy matrix. Diamond Relat. Mater. 2007, 16:974-977

Efremov VP, Zakatilova EI. The analysis of thermal stability of detonation nanodiamond. Journal of Physics: Conference Series 2016, 774:012014

Prasad KE, Das B, Maitra U, Ramamurty U, Rao CN. Extraordinary synergy in the mechanical properties of polymer matrix composites reinforced with 2 nanocarbons. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2009, 106:13186-13189

Akram Z, Kausar A, Siddiq M. Review on polymer/carbon nanotube composite focusing polystyrene microsphere and polystyrene microsphere/modified CNT composite: preparation, properties, and significance. . Polym-Plast Technol Engineer. 2016, 55:582-603

Kausar A, Ur Rahman A. Effect of graphene nanoplatelet addition on properties of thermo-responsive shape memory polyurethane-based nanocomposite. Full Nanotub Carb Nanostruct. 2016, 24:235-242

Ahmed N, Kausar A, Muhammad B. Advances in shape memory polyurethanes and composites: A review. Polym-Plast Technol Engineer. 2015, 54:1410-1423

Nasir A, Kausar A, Younus A. Novel hybrids of polystyrene nanoparticles and silica nanoparticles-grafted-graphite via modified technique. . Polym-Plast Technol Engineer. 2015, 54:1122-1134

Kausar A, Rafique I, Muhammad B. Review of Applications of Polymer/Carbon Nanotubes and Epoxy/CNT Composites. Polym-Plast Technol Engineer. 2016, 55:1167-1191

Shah R, Kausar A, Muhammad B. Characterization and Properties of Poly (methyl methacrylate)/Graphene, Poly (methyl methacrylate)/Graphene oxide and Poly (methyl methacrylate)/p-Phenylenediamine-Graphene Oxide Nanocomposites. Polym-Plast Technol Engineer. 2015, 54:1334-1342

Kausar A, Rafique I, Anwar Z, Muhammad B. Perspectives of epoxy/graphene oxide composite: Significant features and technical applications. Polym-Plast Technol Engineer. 2016, 55:704-722


  • There are currently no refbacks.

AJPSE(ISSN 2572-5734)Copyright © 2012-2021. All rights reserved. Published by Ivy Union Publishing, 3204 Valley Rush Dr, Apex, North Carolina 27502, United States