Cover Image

Novel Nanofiltration Membranes of Poly(4-Chlorostyrene)-grafted-1-(4-thiocarbamoylaminophenyl-sulfonylphenyl)thiourea and Gold/Polystyrene Composite Nanoparticle

Ayesha Kausar


In the current research poly(4-chlorostyrene) grafted with thiourea-based diamine (1-(4-thiocarbamoylaminophenylsulfonylphenyl) thiourea) (PCS-g-DA) was prepared. The nanofiltration membrane of PCS-g-DA was prepared using tetrahydrofuran as solvents via phase inversion method. For the reinforcement purpose gold nanoparticles and its composite nanoparticles with polystyrene microspheres (AuNPs-PSNPs) have been designed and studied using transmission electron microscopy. Cross-section and internal fractured PCS-g-DA/AuNPs-PSNPs membrane surfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Nanoporous membrane morphology was observed at increased nanofiller loading. The membrane property study revealed higher pure water permeation flux, recovery and solute rejection for membranes with higher AuNPs-PSNPs content. The PCS-g-DA/AuNPs-PSNPs membrane with 1 wt. % loading showed flux of 17.4 mLcm−2 min−1 and salt rejection ratio of 72.2 %. In addition glass transition temperature, porosity, and water uptake of membranes were increased with filler loading. The tensile strength was increased from 29.5-37.6 MPa in PCS-g-DA/AuNPs-PSNPs 0.1-1 membranes. Efficiency of the gold/polystyrene nanoparticles reinforced membranes was found to be 99 % for the removal of Hg2+ and Pb2+. According to the results, the composite membranes have fine nanofiltration characteristics to be utilized in advance water treatment industrial units.


Nanofiltration; poly(4-chlorostyrene); morphology; tensile strength; flux

Full Text:



Abdallah H, El-Gendi A, El-Zanati E, Matsuura T. Pervaporation of methanol from methylacetate mixture using polyamide-6 membrane. Desal Wat Treat. 2013, 51: 7807-7814

Aparaschivei R, Şunel V, Popa M, Desbrieres J. Sulfonic Derivatives of 2-Mercaptobenzoxazole and Its Conjugates with Poly(Maleic anhydride-alt-vinyl acetate) with Potential Pharmacological Applications. Int J Polym Mater. 2014, 63: 268-276

Alayemieka E, Lee S. Modification of polyamide membrane surface with chlorine dioxide solutions of differing pH. Desal Wat Treat. 2013, 45: 84-90

Phillip W A, Hillmyer M A, Cussler E L. Cylinder Orientation Mechanism in Block Copolymer Thin Films Upon Solvent Evaporation. Macromolecules. 2014, 43: 7763-7770

Kiran K, Goswami S. PMMA/PHEA Interpenetrating Network Embedded With Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Drug Delivery Applications. Int J Polym Mater. 2014, 63: 963-970

Tagliazucchi M, Azzaroni O, Szleifer I. Responsive Polymers End-Tethered in Solid-State Nanochannels: When Nanoconfinement Really Matters. J Am Chem Soc. 2014, 132: 12404-12411.

Mehta A, Zydney A L. Permeability and selectivity analysis for ultrafiltration membranes. J Membr Sci. 2005, 249: 245-249

Said M M, El-Aassar A H M, Kotp Y H, Shawky H A, Abdel Mottaleb M S A. Performance assessment of prepared polyamide thin film composite membrane for desalination of saline groundwater at Mersa Alam-Ras Banas, Red Sea Coast, Egypt. Desal Wat Treat. 2013, 51: 4927-4937

Vandezande P, Gevers L E M, Vankelecom I F J. Solvent resistant nanofiltration: separating on a molecular level. Chem Soc Rev. 2008, 37: 365-405

Petersen R J. Composite reverse osmosis and nanofiltration membranes. J Membr Sci. 1993, 83: 81-150.

Mohan D J, Kullová L. A study on the relationship between preparation condition and properties/performance of polyamide TFC membrane by IR, DSC, TGA, and SEM techniques. Desal Wat Treat. 2013, 51: 586-596

Sandín R, Ferrero E, Repollés C, Navea S, Bacardit J, Espinós J P, Malfeito J J. Reverse osmosis membranes oxidation by hypochlorite and chlorine dioxide: spectroscopic techniques vs. Fujiwara test. Desal Wat Treat. 2013, 51: 318-327

Yanagishita H, Arai J, Sandoh T, Negishi H, Kitamoto D, Ikegami T, Haraya K, Idemoto Y, Koura N. Preparation of polyimide composite membranes grafted by electron beam irradiation. J Membr Sci. 2004, 232: 93-98

A. M. Balachandra, G. L. Baker1, M. L. Bruening, Preparation of composite membranes by atom transfer radical polymerization initiated from a porous support. Membr Sci. 2003, 227: 1-14

Pei G, Chenga G, Du Q. Preparation of chelating resin filled composite membranes, and selective adsorption of Cu(II). J Membr Sci. 2002, 196: 85-93

Wei Y -M, Xu, Z -L, Qusay F A, Wu K. Polyvinyl Alcohol/Polysulfone (PVA/PSF) Hollow Fiber Composite Membranes for Pervaporation Separation of Ethanol/Water Solution. J Appl Polym Sci. 2005, 98: 247-254

Liu J, Su Y, Peng J, Zhao X, Zhang Y, Dong Y, Jiang Z. Preparation and Performance of Antifouling PVC/CPVC Blend Ultrafiltration Membranes. Ind Eng Chem Res. 2012, 51: 8308-8314

Bagheripour E, Moghadassi A R, Hosseini S M. Novel nanofiltration membrane with low concentration of polyvinylchloride: Investigation of solvents’ mixing ratio effect (Dimethyl acetamide/Tetrahydrofuran). Arab J Chem. 2014, DOI: 10.1016/j.arabjc.2014.01.019

Slocik J M, Zabinski Jr. J S, Phillips D M, Naik R R. Colorimetric response of peptide-functionalized gold nanoparticles to metal ions, Small. 2008, 4: 548-551

San-Jose N, Gomez-Valdemoro A, García F, Calderon V, García J M. Novel aliphatic–aromatic poly(amide urea)s: synthesis, characterization and application to the elimination of environmentally toxic heavy metal ions, React Funct Polym. 2008, 68: 1337-1345

Wu Y, Zhang Y, Xu J, Chen M, Wu L. One-step preparation of PS/TiO2 nanocomposite particles via miniemulsion polymerization. J Colloid Interfac Sci. 2010, 343: 18-24

Kausar A, Hussain S T. Investigation of physical properties and structure–property relationship in new poly(azo-sulfone-amide)s. High Perform Polym. 2013, 25: 387-398

Buonomennaa M G, Macchib P, Davolic M, Driolia E. Poly(vinylidene fluoride) membranes by phase inversion: the role the casting and coagulation conditions play in their morphology, crystalline structure and properties. Eur Polym J. 2007, 43: 1557-1572

Ashraf R, Kausar A, Siddiq M. High-performance polymer/nanodiamond composites: synthesis and properties. Iran Polym J. 2014, 23: 531-545

Jing M, Lingling L, Guohua C, Congjie G, Shengxiong D. Preparation of N, O-carboxymethyl chitosan (NOCC) composite nanofiltration membranes and its rejection performance for the fermentation effluent from a wine factory. Chin J Chem Eng. 2008, 16: 209-213

Kausar A, Hussain S T. New generation of thermally stable and conducting poly(azomethine-ester)s: nano-blend formation with polyaniline. 2013, 62: 1442-1450

Kausar A, Hussain S T. Synthesis and properties of poly(thiourea-azo-naphthyl)/multi-walled carbon nanotube composites. J Plast Film Sheet. 2014, 30: 205-224

Duhart A, Dozol J F, Rouquette H, Deratani A. Selective removal of cesium from model nuclear waste solutions using a solid membrane composed of an unsymmetrical calix[4]arenebiscrown-6 bonded to an immobilized polysiloxane backbone. J Membr Sci. 2001, 185: 145-155

Calderón V, Serna F, García F, de la Peña J L, García J M. Selective solid–liquid extraction of cations using solid-phase polyamides with crown ether moieties as cation host units. J Appl Polym Sci. 2007, 106: 2875-2884


  • There are currently no refbacks.

AJPSE(ISSN 2572-5734)Copyright © 2012-2021. All rights reserved. Published by Ivy Union Publishing, 3204 Valley Rush Dr, Apex, North Carolina 27502, United States