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Ecotoxicological Aspects of Pharmaceuticals on Aquatic Environment

Prabal Giri, Churala Pal

Abstract


Research on pharmaceuticals is becoming important today to the chemists as well as to the biologists considering the complex molecular functionalities, diverse physicochemical properties and bioactivities. Specific biological activities are the main reason for their use and development. Biodegradation modifies the chemical structure of their active molecules resulting in a change in their physicochemical and pharmaceutical properties. Chronic ecotoxicity data as well as information on the current distribution levels in different environmental compartments continue to be sparse and are focused on those therapeutic classes. Nevertheless, they indicate the negative impact that these chemical contaminants may have on living organisms, ecosystems and ultimately, public health. This paper describes the different contamination sources as well as fate and both acute and chronic effects on non-target organisms.


Keywords


Supramolecular Chemistry; Crystal Engineering; Co-crystals; Pharmaceutical Co-crystals

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References


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